Human skin plays a vital role in preventing microbes from entering the body. Any open skin wound due to accidental cuts, animal bites, blisters, surgical or other issues are quickly colonized by several different highly pathogenic microorganisms both bacterial (Clostridium, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus) and fungal (Candida) species.
In addition, battle injuries suffered by military personnel as well as civilian firearm injuries are often severe and may take extensive time to heal thereby requiring prolonged hospitalization. This creates an opportunity for bacterial and fungal pathogens to infect the wounds associated with such injuries.
Despite the usage of antibiotics, microbes can easily penetrate the skin through wounds or infections, attack the underlying tissue and eventually get into the blood stream. This could lead to sepsis, trauma or ultimately amputation.
Nails are vulnerable to fungal (Trichophyton) and bacterial (Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus) infections. Immunocompromised patients and patients with diabetic or heart conditions are highly vulnerable to skin wound or toe-nail infections.